HIV, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus, is a virus that attacks the immune system, specifically targeting CD4 cells (T cells), which help the immune system fight off infections. Over time, HIV can weaken the immune system, making it harder for the body to defend against various illnesses and infections. If left untreated, HIV can lead to the disease known as AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). HIV is primarily transmitted through contact with certain body fluids, including blood, semen, vaginal fluids, rectal fluids, and breast milk from a person who has HIV. The most common ways HIV is transmitted include unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected partner, sharing needles or syringes with someone who has HIV, and from mother to child during childbirth or breastfeeding. It is not spread through casual contact like hugging, kissing, or sharing utensils. While there is no cure for HIV, advances in medical treatment have led to highly effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) that can control the virus’s replication and slow down the progression of the disease. With proper treatment and medical care, many people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. Additionally, HIV can be prevented through measures like using condoms during sexual intercourse, not sharing needles, and through pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for individuals at high risk of contracting the virus.