Bipolar Affective Disorder
Bipolar affective disorder, commonly known as bipolar disorder or manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition characterized by extreme mood swings that include episodes of mania and depression. Individuals with bipolar disorder experience periods of intense emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and periods of deep lows (depression). These episodes can last for days, weeks, or even months, and the frequency and duration can vary from person to person. Here are some key features of bipolar affective disorder: Manic episodes: During a manic episode, individuals may feel euphoric, have high energy levels, engage in impulsive or risky behaviors, exhibit rapid speech, have racing thoughts, and experience a decreased need for sleep. They may also have an inflated sense of self-importance, grandiose ideas, and difficulty concentrating. Hypomanic episodes: Hypomania is a milder form of mania and is characterized by similar symptoms but to a lesser degree. Individuals may still feel energized, productive, and have an elevated mood, but the symptoms are not as severe as during a full manic episode. Hypomanic episodes may be enjoyable for some individuals, but they can also lead to impaired judgment and negative consequences. Depressive episodes: Depressive episodes are characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide. These episodes can be severe and significantly impact daily functioning.